Confiando y desconfiando

Como he venido escribiendo en este blog: podemos hacer tres distinciones para observar la confianza. Tres confianzas distintas que ofrecen diversas posibilidades para movernos competente o incompetentemente en esto de confiar y desconfiar.

Confianza 1. Ocurre por la necesidad que tengo de confiar en la sinceridad y la competencia de las personas que se comprometen con abrirme posibilidades inmediatas - ofreciéndome un producto, proveyéndome una información, ejecutando acciones específicas. Antes de aceptar cualquiera de estas posibilidades debo evaluar si confío o no en ellas. Y normalmente puedo hacerlo guiándome por la historia de interacciones que he tenido con esas personas y con las posibilidades que ellas me han abierto en el pasado.

La dificultad de confiar ocurre cuando me encuentro con alguien desconcido; cosa que me ocurrirá recurrentemente. ¿Cómo puedo evaluar la confiabilidad de lo que alguien desconocido me ofrece? Parece un situación imposible: no tengo razones para confiar asi como tampoco tengo razones para desconfiar...hay una persona sin historia conmigo parada al frente mio.

La gran enfermedad de la confianza 1 - la desconfianza patológica - es suponer que solamente podemos confiar en aquellas personas con las que hemos interactuado y nos han cumplido recurrentemente en el pasado. O suponer que, antes de aceptar confiadamente compromisos de otras personas, debo contar con una investigación completa de su pasado, de si cumplen o no cumplen este tipo de compromisos, de si son competentes o no lo son y en qué grado. O sea, quiero moverme confiando solamente en quienes cuento con razones positivas (historia positiva de cumplimientos pasados) para confiar. Así, me condeno a vivir en un mundo muy local (en el caso extremo de querer asegurarme a toda costa, un mundo vacío poblado solo por mi mismo). Por el contrario, la conducta competente en esto de confiar parece consistir en abrirnos a confiar en quienes no conocemos si no contamos con razones positivas para desconfiar. Me parece a mi que la desconfianza patológica es una enfermedad más habitual que la contraria - la confianza ingenua -, que nos lleva a confiar aunque tengamos razones positivas para desconfiar. En cualquier caso, confiar simpre nos significa un riesgo inevitable; tal vez por lo mismo, cuando la confianza se mostró finalmente justificada, ella sonstituye para nosotros un verdadero regalo.

Confianza 2. Ocurre por la necesidad que tengo de confiar en la identidad de aquellas personas con las que me ato en un proyecto de creación de identidad futura que no es inmediato. Mientras más se juega mi destino en ese proyecto, más me pesa la necesidad de confiar bien. En la confianza 1 debo decidir si confiar o no en las acciones de una determinada persona; en la confianza 2 debo decidr si confiar o no en quien es la otra, en su identidad. Debo hacer una interpretación de quién es esa persona, incluyendo las virtudes que despliega en su involucramiento con otras: indiferencia e indulgencia o auténtico compromiso solidario.

La gran enfermedad de la confianza 2 - el prejuicio rígido - consiste en clasificar las identidades en dos grupos, compuestos por aquellas que son confiables y aquellas que no lo son, respectivamente. Así, las mujeres no son confiables para ciertos varones para participar en ciertos proyectos; los varones pueden no serlo para otras; los jóvenes pueden ser desconfiables para algunos adultos y viceversa; no se puede confiar en los jefes, tampoco se puede en los ejecutivos, tampoco en los mandos medios; no se debe confiar en los de ventas, tampoco en los de planificación; no se puede confiar demasiado en los trabajadores, menos en los empresarios; nunca en los de arriba, nunca en los de abajo; tampoco conviene confiar mucho en los clientes; no se puede confiar en la gente de derecha, tampoco en los de izquierda; tampoco en los militares, menos en los civiles; no hay que confiar en los que juegan golf. Generalizamos sin cuidado a partir de nuestra menguada experiencia.

El prejuicio sostenido es la patología fundamental de esta confianza. Nos encajona en un mundo cerrado y recurrente de identidades familiares, en un mundo social aislado. Nuestros proyectos y nuestros horizontes se mantienen tan estrechos como ya ocurre que son. Reducimos infinitamente el universo de seres humanos con los cuales construir nuevos espacios de posibilidades futuras, con los cuales traer nuevas y más valiosas posibilidades al mundo. Inventamos un mundo dividido en roles y constituido por tribus sociales. A mi parecer el prejuicio rígido es más extendido y peligroso que el igualitarismo superficial que consiste en olvidar que diversos roles y diversas identidades tiene distintos intereses y preocupaciones constitutivas, y movernos con un falso igualitarismo que octúa como si estas diferencias no existieran.

Confianza 3: consiste en aquella confianza de trasfondo que tengo con todos quienes pertenecen a mi mundo histórico. Si la confianza 2 confía en la identidad o el ser individual de otros, la confianza 3 confía en su estilo histórico. Por el solo hecho de haber compartido el mismo estilo cultural, compartimos una gran cantidad de códigos y reglas tácitas de comportamiento (sobretodo reglas de qué no se debe hacer en diversas situaciones) que nos parecen obvios y de sentido común. Y esta confianza de trasfondo es ciertamente un fluido lubricante que facilita todas nuestras interacciones y la comunicación mutua.

¿El peligro?: la xenofobia. La desconfianza en quienes son "distintos". Consiste en convertir nuestros prejuicios históricos en aquello que es correcto. En convertir nuestro comportamiento convencional en normas verdaderas trascendentes. En no aceptar, o en considerar inferiores en cualquier sentido, las costumbres, la música, los orgullos, las emociones, el sentido de auto-respeto, en fin, la sensibilidad y la forma de vida, de otras comunidades. Recordemos que, como chilenos, somos muy pocos en el mundo. Y hay mucha, mucha gente con estilos muy distintos. Me parece a mi que este peligro o incompetencia es más importante y extendidio que el peligro opuesto - la hiperflexibilidad - que nos hace borarr toda diferencia y nos des-encarna de las tradiciones de nuestra propia comunidad histórica..movernos como si todo diera exactamente lo mismo y transformarnos, en consecuencia, sin limitaciones.

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